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Free download Mandarins of the Future Modernization Theory in Cold War America New Studies in American Intellectual Cultural History ä PDF, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ´ ❰Read❯ ➵ Mandarins of the FuS the role of Walt Rostow and his colleagues at MIT in promoting modernization theory during the Kennedy and Johnson administrations of the New Deal order Gilman not only provides a new intellectual context for America's Third World during the Cold War but also connects the optimism of the Great Society to the notion that American power and good intentions could stop the postcolonial world of the Future Epub #225 from embracing communism. As the onset of the Cold War coincided with the end of European and Japanese colonialism in the decades following World War II American policymakers and social scientists sought to create a development model that would serve as an alternative to Soviet communism whose rapid industrialization in the 1930s and 40s was widely admired by Third World intellectuals and leaders In Mandarins of the Future Nils Gilman traces the formation of that model modernization theory in elite universities by social scientists with close ties to the US government and corporate philanthropic organizations Gilman shows how these intellectuals' elitist sensibilities and rose tinted view of American society and history influenced the policy ideas they generated and why modernization theory ultimately lost influence following the Vietnam War which some of the leading figures of modernization theory such as Walt Rostow were deeply involved in He also traces the afterlife of modernization theory showing how many of its leading proponents during the 50s and 60s became neoconservatives or communitarians in subseuent decades and also discussing the resurgence of modernization themes under the guise of the Washington Consensus in the 1990s I would strongly recommend this book for students of international development and comparative politics Many American social scientists operate under the illusion that their fields are value free objective and 'progressive' in the sense that they are moving closer and closer to obtaining a 'complete' understanding of how the world works Mandarins of the Future should give them pause because it shows how social scientists who considered themselves objective nonetheless produced knowledge that was shaped by their standpoint as white males from middle class backgrounds educated in elite institutions which shaped their understanding of American society that thereby served as the 'norm' against which all others should be measured I would argue that American political science is still shaped by the elitist distrust of populism and the consensus intepretation of American history that Gilman identifies as sources of bias in modernization theory which in turn distorts the way they measure and theorize about political regimes states and economic development in the rest of the world This book highlights the need for social scientists to be reflexive about how their standpoint shapes the knowledge that they create because social scientists are the products of the very social orders that they studyThe final chapter of the book which discusses the postmodernist reaction to modernization theory and social modernism in general highlights a dilemma that I struggle with On the one hand modernization theory and the Washington Consensus present 'one size fits all' approaches to development that are based on distorted understandings of how the 'West' succeeded that conveniently occludes the sources of deepening ineualities within and between countries and the history of coercion that any honest account of European and American history must put in the foreground When the imperial state and philanthropic organizations backed by wealthy donors create development knowledge it's hard not to be skeptical because these biases are going to come up again and again they're produced by the structure On the other hand the postmodernist post development critics of development ideology fail in fact refuse to offer strategies for developing nations to improve welfare for their citizens Gilman has a point when he says that people like Arturo Escobar throw out the modernist baby with the development bathwater Criticism of the development apparatus shouldn't lead us to romaticize 'underdevelopment' What would development without domination really look like I'm not convinced by Gilman's call for the creation of a global new deal but I think that he's right that we still need to generate theories of development if we're going to make this century better than the one that came before it we're not off to a great start

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Because it provided the dominant framework the Future PDFEPUB #196 for development of poor postcolonial countries modernization theory ranks among the most important constructs of th century social science In this book Nils Gilman offers an intellectual history of a movement that has had far reaching and often unintended conseuences postwar sense of global mission Gilman offers a close analysis of the people who did the most to promote i. I'm shelving Mandarins of the Future next to my Vietnam War books because this is the intellectual history behind why the best and the brightest went into a small Southeast Asian country and lost everythingThe end of the Second World War with its victory over fascism and the next struggle against international Communism offered a great opportunity for American academics 1950s America prosperous tranuil and democratic clearly stood at the endpoint of history All that needed to done was to prove this was true and then export the American system to the newly liberated Third World before the pernicious virus of Communism got there first This project was one of modernization first a universal social science to describe the trajectory of nations from a traditional past to an industrialized democratic scientific and stable modernity and then a set of overarching policy projects in Latin America Asia and Africa to make this vision a realityThe three cases studies on academic units and their leaders Talcott Parsons at Harvard Edward Shils and Gabriel Almond at Princeton and Walt Rostow at MIT provide a thorough accounting of modernization theory and its troubled and multifaceted links to American history and Marxism In promoting an America System of modernity these thinkers espoused a vision of 'conflict less' progress and expansion of wealth in America that ignored the very real evils of genocide against Native Americans slavery and the Civil War or the struggle between labor and capitalist robber barons in the late 19th century They conceived of the social scientist as a kind of collective psychoanalyst a specialist that could help elites display democratic virtues without the chaotic hurly burly of mass political participation Abroad modernizers conceived of a project of state directed development that reuired a firm national hand In the absence of a robust civil society the military could do this just fine and there were no contradictions between modernization and authoritarian regimesAs Gilman recounts in the final chapters modernization theory collapsed comprehensively with the failure of liberal policy in the 60s and 70s as the KennedyJackson initiatives around the Vietnam War and the Great Society failed to produce victory at great expense and the economy stagnated Modernization theory having been so close to the apex of the military industrial academic complex became an easy target from critics across the political spectrum A resurgent Right from old guard segregationists to neoliberal deregulators dismantled the modernist project of active government intervention The counter culture from street fighting youths to post modern intellectuals railed against the closed totalizing vision of modernity finding solace in individual and subjective identities Mandarins of the Future matters because for all that they got wrong the conception of modernity developed by the subjects of this book remains a durable default The welfare state elite deliberatve democracy and a basic optimism about technology and the future are at the core of left central politics today Modernization theory was dusted off and used to justify the non military aspects of the 2003 Invasion of Ira and the Global War on Terror For all the battering that these political ideologies and ideals have taken in recent years modernization is at least a productive theory unlike the intellectual cynicism and nihilism of the various flavors of post modernist thought or the Darwinian accelerationism that seems to be the end state of global capitalism Perhaps modernity is to rephrase Churchill the least bad of all our ways of existing in the 20th century If so it is important to understand it as an idea with a particularly genesis and background and not an automatic endpoint of history This book serves as important intellectual stepping stone between Marx and Weber and the conditions of life in the 21st century

characters Mandarins of the Future Modernization Theory in Cold War America New Studies in American Intellectual Cultural History

Mandarins of the Future Modernization Theory in Cold War America New Studies in American Intellectual Cultural HistoryT in the United States and the academic institutions they came to dominate He first explains how Talcott Parsons at Harvard constructed a social theory that challenged the prevailing economics Mandarins of PDF or centred understanding of the modernization process then describes the work of Edward Shils and Gabriel Almond in helping Parsonsian ideas triumph over other alternative conceptions of the development process and finally discusse.